The electrification of the transport sector: the great challenge for the decarbonisation and the development of the renewable energies.
The transport sector is responsible for almost a quarter of the greenhouse gas emissions in Europe. The Government faces a great challenge if it wants to achieve the emission reduction targets set by the European Union for the year 2030.
The electrification of the transport will not only help to decarbonise this sector, it will also favour the development of the renewable energies and with them the decarbonisation of the electricity sector.
The European Union set as a goal for 2030 the reduction of the greenhouse gas emissions by, at least, 55% in relation to the level of 1990. This is an intermediate goal to achieve the climate neutrality in 2050.
The emissions of the transport sector in Europe account for almost a quarter of the greenhouse gas emissions.
In Spain, according to the National Inventory of Greenhouse Gases of the Ministry for the Ecological Transition and the Demographic Challenge, in 2018 the transport sector was the one that generated the highest amount of greenhouse gas emissions, 27%, followed by the industrial activities, with 19.9%, the electricity generation, with 17.8%, and the agriculture, with 11.9%.
Therefore, reducing the emissions in this sector is crucial to achieve the objectives set by the European Union.
However, considering the data and the timeframe of just nine years to meet the first goal, it is clear that the challenge is ambitious. In 2019, the emissions from the transport sector were 49% higher than those of 1990. The emissions of 2019 should be reduced by 70% to make them 55% lower than those of 1990 and thus meet the target for 2030.
The road transport is responsible for more than 90% of the emissions of the transport sector in Spain, so it is clear that this is where the efforts must be intensified.
The electrification of the transport sector will be crucial to achieve the objectives of reduction of greenhouse gases, and in turn will make it possible to absorb a large part of the electricity from renewable origin that is expected to be installed in the coming years, favouring their harmonious development.
Goals that will also be boosted by using hydrogen fuel cell vehicles for the long‑distance transport. In other words, electrifying the transport sector favours the decarbonisation of this sector, but also that of the electricity sector.
The Government faces a great challenge, to be able to encourage the use of the electric vehicles and the development of the infrastructures that this mobility revolution needs.
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